Mudarse Afuera Del Estado: Lo Que Los Padres de Nueva Jersey Deben Saber

La ley de Nueva Jersey establece que cuando la Corte tiene jurisdicción sobre la custodia y el apoyo de los niños de padres divorciados, separados o que viven separados, los niños no pueden mudarse del estado sin el consentimiento de los niños (si son de edad adecuada) o sin el consentimiento de los dos padres. Si uno de los padres se opone a que los niños se muden de Nueva Jersey, cualquiera de los padres puede presentar una aplicación ante de la Corte para solicitar una orden que permita o prohíba la reubicación. El propósito de la ley es preservar los derechos de los padres que no tienen custodia, así como mantener y desarrollar la relación entre el padre que no tiene custodia y los niños. La Corte ha reconocido que la reubicación de niños del estado puede afectar gravemente los derechos de visita del padre que no tiene la custodia.

Las cortes siguen las normas establecidas en Baures v. Lewis y O’Connor v. O’Connor durante los últimos dieciséis años. Baures, supra, 167 N.J. 91 (2001); O’Connor, supra, 349 N.J. Super. 381 (App. Div. 2002). La decisión de Baures y O’Connor resultó en una prueba de dos puntas. La primera punta hico necesario que la Corte determinar el verdadero acuerdo de custodia física. Podría haber un cierto acuerdo de custodia compartida, o, alternativamente, podría haber un arreglo donde un padre se designa como el padre de residencia primaria (PPR) y el otro padre es designa como el padre de residencia alterna (PAR). La segunda punta requiere que la corte analice la disputa basada en el acuerdo de custodia. En los casos con custodia física compartida, la corte evaluaría lo que será mejor para el niño. En los casos en que existe un arreglo de PPR y PAR, la Corte determinará si el PPR hace la petición de buena fe y si la reubicación haría daño al interés del niño. Este estándar viene de la investigación de ciencias sociales antiguas que pretendía que el interés de un niño estaba atado al bienestar del PPR.

Las cortes adoptaron un nuevo estándar en agosto de 2017 cuando La Corte Suprema de Nueva Jersey decidió el caso de Bisbing v. Bisbing. 2017 N.J. Lexis 830. La Corte reconoció que la ciencia social detrás de la decisión de Baures ya no era universalmente cierta, y como tal, descubrió que independientemente del acuerdo de custodia, las cortes deben decidir las disputas de reubicación al decidir qué es lo mejor para el niño. Esto incluye pero no se limita a losconocimientos de los dos padres, así como los factores estatutarios bajo de N.J.S.A. 9:2-4, que son los siguientes:

* La capacidad de los padres para ponerse de acuerdo, comunicarse y cooperar en materia relacionada con el niño;

* La disposición de los padres a aceptar la custodia y cualquier historial de falta de voluntad para permitir el tiempo de crianza no se basa en el abuso justificado;

* La interacción y relación del niño con sus padres y hermanos;

* La historia de la violencia doméstica, si la hay;

* La seguridad del niño y la seguridad de cualquiera de los padres del abuso físico del otro padre;

* La preferencia del niño cuando tiene suficiente edad y capacidad para razonar a fin de formar una decisión inteligente;

* Las necesidades del niño;

* La estabilidad del ambiente de casa ofrecido;

* La calidad y la continuidad de la educación del niño;

* La aptitud de los padres; la proximidad geográfica de las casas de los padres;

* El alcance y la calidad del tiempo pasado con el niño antes o después de la separación;

* Las responsabilidades laborales de los padres; y

* La edad y el número de niños

New Jersey’s Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act

The New Jersey Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act (UCCJEA) is a law designed to prevent one parent from choosing a more favorable jurisdiction for a custody case to be heard. The UCCJEA is also meant to avoid interstate child custody disputes and promote the cooperation of states with respect to matters related to child custody. All states have adopted some variation of the UCCJEA, and while certain provisions may differ from one state to the next, the basic provisions are essentially the same.

The UCCJEA grants jurisdiction over a child custody matter to the state with which the child has the most significant contacts. Typically, at least one parent and the child must reside in the state of New Jersey for a New Jersey court to issue a custody order for that child, and there must be substantial evidence available in the state about the child’s care, living environment, and personal relationships. In fact, for New Jersey to be the home state of a child, the child either must be a resident of the state for at least six months prior to the custody action or was a resident of the state for six months before a parent claiming custody removed him or her from the state.

There are some exceptions, however, to these general rules. For instance, if a child is physically abandoned in New Jersey and in need of protection from actual or potential mistreatment, abuse, or neglect, a New Jersey court can exercise emergency jurisdiction over the child in issuing a custody order. This type of order usually only lasts so long as the child is in immediate need of protection. Likewise, if it is in a child’s overall best interest for a custody case to be heard in a particular jurisdiction, then it is possible that no other jurisdiction would have the authority to hear the case.

Child custody cases are often complicated, lengthy, emotional, and stressful, and when multiple states are involved, these cases become even more difficult. No matter how complex the issues in your case may be, we are here to help. The attorneys of Argentino Family Law & Child Advocacy, LLC, have handled cases involving all aspects of divorce, child custody, and family law, as well as cases involving other matters related to families and children. Please contact the experienced New Jersey family and child lawyers at our office if you have any legal questions about children and your family.

Residency Requirements for a New Jersey Divorce

In order to get divorced in the state of New Jersey, the court must have authority over you to hear and make decisions about your case. This is called jurisdiction, and it includes certain residency requirements that you must meet in order to get divorced in the state. N.J. Stat. 2A:34-10. At least one spouse must have been a bona fide resident of the state of New Jersey for one year immediately prior to the divorce being filed. Until one of you meets this requirement, you cannot get divorced in New Jersey.

The only exception is if you are filing for divorce on the basis of adultery, or that your spouse had an affair with another person. In this case, neither you nor your spouse must be a resident of New Jersey for one year immediately prior to filing for divorce but at least one of you has to reside in the state at the time of filing. For any other grounds for divorce, however, whether it is a fault or no-fault ground, you or your spouse must meet the residency requirement.

If you don’t meet the residency requirements, then you will simply have to wait to file for divorce until one of you has met the residency requirement. If you recently moved to New Jersey, you might look at filing for divorce in the state from which you moved, if you can meet that state’s residency requirements. Every state has different residency requirements that you must meet in order to file for divorce. It also may be burdensome if you have to travel to the other state regularly in order to meet with your lawyer and attend court hearings.

We know how difficult, complicated, and emotionally draining divorce cases can be. Contact Argentino Family Law & Child Advocacy, LLC, today and we will show you how we can help with your New Jersey divorce case. Our attorneys focus their practice primarily on family law and issues related to children, so we are sure to have the skills that you need for proper representation in your divorce case. We are here to answer your questions, settle your concerns, and assist you through the often difficult process of contested divorce and family law cases.

The Importance of Confirmatory Adoption or Order of Parentage

Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S., 135 S. Ct. 2584, 192 L. Ed. 2d 609 (2015), a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, firmly established marriage equality for same-sex marriages. However, legal issues still remain regarding same-sex parentage as state laws struggle to keep up with constantly evolving reproductive technology and the different configurations of families. This is why we strongly advise same-sex female couples who have conceived a child through Assisted Reproductive Technology, even with co-maternity, or ovum sharing, to take the precautionary step of establishing a confirmatory adoption or order of parentage in the partner who did not give birth.

New Jersey law recognizes the parent that gives birth to the child as a legal parent.   New Jersey law also establishes a rebuttable presumption that the spouse of a married woman who gives birth is the second parent of the child. N.J.Stat.9:17-43.  This is called the marital presumption. When a child is born to a same-sex married couple in New Jersey, then, both mothers are listed as parents on the child’s birth certificate based upon that presumption of parentage. However, a birth certificate is only an administrative record and is NOT a declaration of, or proof of, parentage that is universally enforceable.   Thus, we still would recommend documenting the situation in a court order of adoption so that a child is protected with regard to all federal benefits and so that the parentage based upon marital presumption is beyond dispute regardless of location around the world.

In a co-maternity situation, both women in a same-sex relationship are able to biologically participate in the reproduction process. Typically, a doctor will extract eggs from one mother and fertilize them with anonymous donor sperm in order to create pre-embryos. The doctor then implants the pre-embryos in the uterus of the second mother, who carries the child(ren) to term and gives birth.   In this situation, the genetic mother is biologically related to the child so an action to confirm parentage under New Jersey statute may be possible.

The New Jersey parentage lawyers at Argentino Family Law & Child Advocacy, LLC, are eager to answer your questions and help you understand the procedures and benefits of filing for a confirmatory adoption or an order of parentage. As your attorneys, we will focus on how best to represent your interests and achieve your desired goals. We have handled countless adoption, parentage, and family law proceedings over the years, and we will work with you to create the best strategy possible in your case. Call our offices today at (973) 868-0958 and learn how we can help you with your New Jersey family law case.